studies have been done on Protein synthesis,on 2 respects
1) ur bodies abilities to stay in a anabolic state,so u are constanlty obsorbing protein
2) The protein synthesis elevation after training

Studies have been done recently on protein synthesis, after training u have a 3 hour window where your protein syntheis levels are elevated to 300-400% meaning that whatever protein u consume will be used by your body straight away..

This applies if you are a Natural athele more than anything,as people on steroids have extremely efficient protein synthesis levels, just thing about it when ur growing up you have massive growth hormone and testerone levels,this is your bodies way of making u grow into a fully developed human being..when u are on steroids are u are duplicating that same thing...if you are a natural athelete you only have a 2/4 day window where your body starts to rapidly drop down, this is why Natural atheletes should train each bodypart twice a week..

Moral of the story train each bodypart twice a week,and eat a large quantity of protein withing 3 hours of training..

2) fuck machines,personally after 2 years of training,my shoulders were fucked,knees fucked..pulled my neck and back muscles,i even tore both my quads...all from using crap like leg press..machines...what happened to me is that my body functionality was completely fucked..if u think about it,when u bend down or put something back on top of ur cupboard, there are many muscles involved like your rotar cuffs and general muscles on that function, when you use machines, u basically cut out those supporting muscles, so u are basically driving on flat tires..
I have now switched to squats on free or smith (if i cant get to a free)
Firstly my back has cleared up..it got to a point where i used to get off the loo and used to waddle around now its fine,i started doing light hack squats and my knees have gotten better, thank god, they used to hurt when i went down the stairs lol...i cant squat 1000-1500lbb like i used do on leg press,im only squating 250lb-300 atm,but at least its not leaving me in a virtual wheel chair lol
my lowerback has gotten alot better, there was an imbalance in my abs to lowerback,which was stressing the fuck out of my lowerback..so squatting has helped..
my shoulders are getting there,just if i do really high reps and sets my rotar cuffs get worn the fuck out,so im having not train to fatigue because its going straight on my rotar cuffs..

3) going for a pump is BS all your doing is pushing blood into ur muscles...ur not actually breaking the muscle cells down..the only way to do that is with aggressive training that involves u stretching and compressing.contracting in the whole movement.

4) muscle size is a combination of growing muscle cells through heavy training,then filling the muscle full of glycogen from higher rep training...if u train just heavy u will get thicker muscle,but u wont have the fullness,and if u train just high reps u will get full soft muscles

5) shoulders and how to make them huge..youtube 100m USAIN BOLT SLOW MOTION ART OF SPRINTING FASTEST MAN
if u watch this slow motion,you can see the arms come up faster than the legs..arms and shoulders are a fatigue type of muscle..a combination of careful heavy and a rep range of 10-15 is the one...watch this video of the old runner linford christie,his shoulders were huge and thick..he train with speed with heavy weights
https://wwwyoutubecom/watch?v=aeDywIq8XBY ut the . after www and youtube

6) Calves..going back to running,they compress at a very fast rate,u cant just do light weights and go home,u definately need to be hitting them with as heavy a weight as possible and finishing off with high reps, i think this is why most people struggle with calves,they train them like they would anything else.

7) Whey protein can cause as much of a blood sugar elevation as sugars...i used to think that protein is non fat adding,its the perfect food,but anything that goes into ur system that quick with push ur bloody sugar levels up, it got to a point,where i was feeling drowsy after a protein shake..by adding some peanuts and a little carbs, im now not getting that insulin spike...

8) eating 6 meals a day, people still follow this regime,but its quickly becoming redundant..it takes your body 2 hours to breakdown chicken and 3-6 hours to breakdown beef....so basically u are going to be in a constant food digesting cycle if u eat every 2 hours its like your just pigging out..this is why we fat in the first place,just eating all the time...its all about 3/4 meals per day rich in nutrients..

9) Low fat diets people dont realise when u are overweight a ton of thise weight is water, ur basically carbing urself to shit,its got more to do with the type of carbs,if u eating processed sugar and wheats and anything,where ur body doesnt have to break it down,its will just full u out like a balloon,wheres good fats slow ur bloody sugar levels down..moral of the story,eat shit than comes out of the ground grows on trees and can reproduce..nuts and olive oil and coconut oils are great ways to keep ur bloody sugar levels stable,so u dont blow up like a balloon..

10) half reps, ok this how i fucked my knees,the trouble with this kind of thing is that its stops a natural rhythemic function, secondly people do it really badly..for example when u should press 90% of the activation is when u reach the bar to ear level,going much higher and the triceps are used a hell of a lot more...doing half reps that low down will fuck ur rotar cuffs...so ide avoid that shit on shoulders.